Each month, your endometrium, the lining of your uterus, grows thick with blood vessels, glands and stored nutrients around the time of ovulation to allow a fertilized egg to implant and grow. If no fertilization occurs, the thick lining sheds as menstrual flow. Two hormones, estrogen and progesterone, control the growth and stabilization of the endometrial tissue and if your body does not produce enough of these hormones your uterus may be unable to support a fertilized egg.
An endometrial biopsy is a test performed to evaluate the endometrial tissue that lines the walls of the uterus to determine if your body is producing enough estrogen and progesterone. However, ovulation induction treatment, which is usually part of most fertility treatment plans, corrects this problem if present. As such, little information is actually gained from an endometrial biopsy. Newer tests such as integin vB3 or endometrial function not traditionally performed along with the endometrial biopsy may provide additional information regarding implantation.
If the endometrial biopsy is performed, it should be done 11 to 13 days after a positive ovulation predictor test result. The physician will place a speculum inside your vagina, insert a small catheter through your cervix into your uterus and remove a small sample of your endometrial lining. The sample will then be sent to a pathologist who will examine your endometrial tissue under the microscope. The procedure only takes a few seconds but it may take up to two weeks to receive the results of the test. During the procedure, you may experience a pinch or slight cramping. You may have mild cramps following the procedure along with light bleeding and spotting.